PostgreSQL vs. MySQL Database Comparison. What to Choose for Your Project?

Database management system is required for managing storage, retrieval, querying and updating the data. Several software applications are required to manage a big data set which might be arranged either in rows and columns or in objects.

You need to choose the perfect database management system to manage and update your information on the database system and to help you improve your programming skills. Many applications are dependent on such programmes.

In the question of PostgreSQL vs MySQL, first the basics must be well-known and then it will be easy to understand which is better.

The Basics

Database management systems like MySQL as well as PostgreSQL are required to maintain data sets and update them. Custom queries can be selected and results can be displayed.

MySQL is more popular but the former is the preferred one. According to a recent statistics, 64% of the software developers used MySQL as of 2015. Some of the important points about the two management of data systems are given below:

About MySQL:

  • “My” refers to initials of the developer’s name and “SQL” is an acronym for the Structured Query language.
  • The function of MySQL is as a relational database management system.
  • Oracle Corporations owns MySQL.
  • It is the fundamental component for LAMP application softwares. LAMP stands for Linux, Apache, MySQL and Perl/PHP/ Python.
  • C and C++ are required for writing MySQL.
  • Finally, it can literally work on all system platforms like Windows, IRIX, Linux, MacOS, and others

About PostgreSQL:

  • Almost similar to MySQL except that it is an object-relational database management system. In this type of system, data is stored in objects as compared to the relational management which consists data in the form of rows and columns.
  • The aim of this system is to improve compliance as well as extensibility.
  • It can handle varying workload ranging from single-machine device to large internet-facing applications.
  • PostgreSQL Global Development Group owns it and developed it.
  • It is also accessible by all platform systems like Microsoft, iOS, Android, etc.
  • It is free of charge for use.

MySQL vs. PostgreSQL

After knowing the basics about them, let’s go on to explain the difference between them, in which aspects and for which programmes they suit better. Also, the industry type is important while choosing the database system. For startup, it is essential to know the difference and to choose one of them for their business. We will talk about pros and cons of PostgreSQL and MySQL.

Open Source Code

When a program is considered as an open-source program, it means that such programmes have unique features of better security and reduced costs.

Talking about MySQL, it was first registered by GNU General Public License and was free. But now the Oracle Corporation bought it and made some changes which include some paid versions.

PostgreSQL Global Development Group owns the other one and is absolutely free for use. It is completely open-source without any exceptions.

Compliance with ACID

“A” stands for Atomicity, “C” for Consistency, “I” refers to Isolation and finally “D” is Durability. ACID compliance makes sure that the data that was entered is not lost and miscommunication is avoided.

Now coming to the comparison, in those cases where InnoDB and NDB Cluster programs are used, then MySQL becomes Complaint whereas PostgreSQL is always compliant with ACID and makes sure to fulfill all the requirements.

Compliance with SQL Guidelines

SQL (Structured Query Language) has some guidelines and must be met with such programmes but MySQL is partly compliant with all implementations rules as per compliance rules of SQL. PostgreSQL is mostly compliant with SQL but some deviations are present which are distinctly stated in the PostgreSQL supplement.

Replication

Most times, database replication is required to be done which is putting the same data that is present in one database on another server. The main aim of replication is to avoid interference with other work.

Master Stand replication is supported by both of them but PostgreSQL has come up with some enhancements which makes this replication quite fast which results in fast processing and simultaneous duplication.

PostgreSQL vs. MySQL Performance

Performance is a thing which isn’t  a constant one and it depends on user and device used. It also assesses the functionality. Web-based projects which contain simple and uncomplicated data transactions can use MySQL but it might not perform well when loaded with too much data.

MySQL works best with OLAP/OLTP systems. Also, InnoDB is quite good when associated with MySQL. When applications related to business intelligence are considered, MySQL comes to mind first but PostgreSQL can also be used.

For large systems, PostgreSQL is preferred. Unlike MySQL, PostgreSQL contains various optimizations options like support for Geospatial data and concurrency but without read locks as is described below among others.

PostgreSQL is most preferred one for solving complicated queries. Also, PostgreSQL is convenient for warehousing and analysis of data. Moreover, many major companies like Apple, Cisco, Skype, Sun Microsystems are clients of PostgreSQL system.

Security

The data has to be secured from vindictive use, virus and wrong usage from any rival company. For security purposes, ACLs (Access Control Lists) are being used by MySQL for all types of implementation and sharing of data.

On the other side, ROLES and set of inherited roles are utilized to maintain permission and security in PostgreSQL. It also contains additional security which is called SE-PostgreSQL. It is an inbuilt software to improve security.

Cloud Hosting

Since a lot of data will be contained in these databases, therefore, cloud storages are favored. Many enterprises and companies like to shift their information from the current database into cloud.

Cloud hosting can help you to increase your data set and capacity quite fast. Both MySQL and PostgreSQL support major cloud storage systems like Amazon, Google, and Microsoft.

Availability of Concurrency

In this racing world where everybody is striving for the best, concurrency is the best way to achieve what you want. Concurrency support suggests that multiple end users can get to the data simultaneously.

It is considered as one of the main features while developing a program with multiple end-users to get into the system. MySQL supports concurrency with MVCC in InnoDB whereas PostgreSQL has effective MVCC execution. Concurrency levels which are achieved by using PostgreSQL are quite high.

NoSQL and JSON

These programs are popular nowadays. They allow better storage and sharing of data. JSON data support is given in MySQL but NoSQL tool is unfortunately not present. PostgreSQL is better in this case because it can support NoSQL as well as JSON.

Temporary Tables vs. Materialized Views

Materialized views, simply are answers of a particular query which may be updated when required according to an indication. The data they contain is important and is required for further use.

But temporary tables are those results which are not required after a specific period of time. Temporary tables are present in both MySQL and PostgreSQL but PostgreSQL also supports materialized views and not by MySQL.

Language of programming

A programming language is a keynote for any developer. Well, since computers don’t speak our language and don’t understand what you are thinking, therefore, a special language has to be developed which is quite detailed with the inclusion of syntax so that the system will understand exactly what you want.

Some examples of a programming language are C++, FORTRAN, COBOL, and JAVA. You may select the language of your choice to create MySQL or PostgreSQL but some points must be kept in mind.

For some MySQL Oracle servers, programming is not extensible in one single language. But for PostgreSQL, it is possible to build it in technically all languages like C/C++, Python, Java or any other programming language. A special user-supplied code can also be applied to write PostgreSQL code.

Table for Comparison Summary

Attribute

MySQL

PostgreSQL

Open-source Open source but with some paid variants No paid versions (full open-source) but some special extensions might require money
ACID compliance Partially compliant Completely compliant
Compliance with SQL Limited compliance Full compliance
Replication Possible with standard Master-Standby. It is possible to replicate data from the single master to one or multiple standbys. Also, circular replication and master to master replication can be done Replication is possible out of Standard master-standby. Apart from the ones mentioned in the column for MySQL, replication of data is possible via Streaming, logical log streaming and bidirectional replication
Performance Works well for applications that are internet based and business based. It works best with InnoDB, OLAP/OLTP systems Works well for systems that are large along with warehousing and analysis of data sets. It has various options for special optimizations like Geospatial data support
Safety Access Control Lists (ACLs) is used for security ROLES along inherited roles and integrated security system called SE-PostgreSQL
Cloud hosting Supports all types of cloud storage like Amazon, Microsoft, etc. Same as MySQL
Support Concurrency Concurrency is supported in MVCC with InnoDB system only High level of concurrency is supported
NoSQL and JSON Support Only JSON Both NoSQL and JSON
Materialized view and Temporary tables Only Temporary tables supported Both temporary tables are materialized views supported
Programming language Limited servers cannot use programming language Supports all programming languages

The Solution to the Question of MySQL vs. PostgreSQL

Well, as per the above-given points, the question of PostgreSQL vs MySQL benchmark has been finally answered. PostgreSQL is clearly much better and well integrated than MySQL when open-source, programming language, materialized views, concurrency, and NoSQL features are considered.

The popularity of MySQL is quite high which can be judged from the fact that MySQL and PostgreSQL both stand at number 2 and 4 respectively when database management softwares were estimated from number 1 to 10. That should also include the fact that MySQL was initially quite popular due to ownership of Oracle but the functionality of PostgreSQL is high.

PostgreSQL has better safety features and various programming languages that can be used to develop it. If you deal with a large set of data, then definitely without any exceptions, you have use PostgreSQL because of availability for materialized views.

Also, about 30% tech companies rely on PostgreSQL. Whether you have business intelligence or data warehousing project, PostgreSQL is preferred. The benefit of MySQL can be considered only in the case when the data set is small and can be discarded later on. But there is no point because of limited open-source.

When you consider PostgreSQL advantages and disadvantages, the list of the former clearly outruns the latter one. Approximately 35000 people are included in subscription list of PostgreSQL, however, there are many who are not subscribed.

Conclusion

As you would have figured out in this MySQL vs. PostgreSQL comparison that PostgreSQL clearly wins this race against MySQL because of being completely open source or free along with other better features.
Data programming is an essential part of every system and that requires a good management system of the database which can provide security, good optimization options, and storage. If you still have questions about PostgreSQL versus MySQL in mind, then contact Lunapps for detailed answers to your questions.

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